Tuesday, May 24, 2011

Part Time Careers For Moms

Part time careers for moms are very difficult to find, unless you are already established in a great career, that allows you the money and flexibility you desire? Flexibility is essential when you have children that need you to be there. You want to make sure your kids are fed, clean and mothered, and you want to have the time to do this yourself. I do not know of any traditional part time careers, for moms- that want to be there for their children.

Mothers are expected to do just about anything that needs doing, but you know what? That is okay, because no one can do it better than we can. We are strong enough to handle it, and much more. We take care of our families without complaint, we earn our own money and we are always there when we are needed. We are mothers, that is what we do. It would be nice if we could find some place that offered part time careers for moms, but there is not one. Not to earn the money, and have the flexibility we want.

I will always be a mother first, but I see no reason to give up earning my own money. I am just not willing to leave my child with some one else while I do it. This is not something I would change. I also know I will not find any part time careers for moms out there, and if I did I would not be working for myself, and making my own decisions. This is not a option for me. The type of part time careers for moms I want do not exist, so I looked for and found a solution.

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Whatever your reason for wanting or needing extra money, this training facility is your solution. You will never have to worry about part time careers for moms, or money again. If you take action to succeed. YOU WILL SUCCEED. Everything is provided for you once you are a member. This is your source for whatever amount of money you want to make. Your career is here, working for yourself. Follow through and you will not fail.

This is the best training facility online or offline, to learn any thing and everything about being successful online. I HAD a hard time learning how to succeed online, that is the past, it actually seems easy now. It is all about the training. Like with all things, ACTION is required, but that is not something we are not used to, and absolutely will not stop me. I hope it will not stop you. It sure beats looking for part time careers for moms. Join me now and your success will follow.


When Children Fail in School: Understanding Learned Helplessness

Learned helplessness is the belief that our own behavior does not influence what happens next; that is, behavior does not control outcomes or results. For example, when a student believes that she is in charge of the outcome, she may think, “If I study hard for this test, I’ll get a good grade.” On the contrary, a learned helpless student thinks, “No matter how hard I study for this test, I’ll always get a bad grade.” In school, learned helplessness relates to poor grades and underachievement, and to behavior difficulties. Students who experience repeated school failure are particularly prone to develop a learned helpless response style. Because of repeated academic failure, these students begin to doubt their own abilities, leading them to doubt that they can do anything to overcome their school difficulties. Consequently, they decrease their achievement efforts, particularly when faced with difficult materials, which leads to more school failure. This pattern of giving up when facing difficult tasks reinforces the child’s belief that he or she cannot overcome his or her academic difficulties.
Learned helplessness seems to contribute to the school failure experienced by many students with a learning disability. In a never-ending cycle, children with a learning disability frequently experience school difficulties over an extended period, and across a variety of tasks, school settings, and teachers, which in turn reinforces the child’s feeling of being helpless.
Characteristics of Learned Helpless Students
Some characteristics of learned helpless children are:               
1.      Low motivation to learn, and diminished aspirations to succeed in school.
2.      Low outcome expectations; that is, they believe that, no matter what they do in school, the outcome will always be negative (e.g. bad grades). In addition, they believe that they are powerless to prevent or overcome a negative outcome.
3.      Lack of perceived control over their own behavior and the environmental events; one’s own actions cannot lead to success.
4.      Lack of confidence in their skills and abilities (low self-efficacy expectations). These children believe that their school difficulties are caused by their own lack of ability and low intelligence, even when they have adequate ability and normal intelligence. They are convinced that they are unable to perform the required actions to achieve a positive outcome.
5.      They underestimate their performance when they do well in school, attributing success to luck or chance, e.g., “I was lucky that this test was easy.”
6.      They generalize from one failure situation or experience to other situations where control is possible. Because they expect failure all the time, regardless of their real skills and abilities, they underperform all the time.
7.      They focus on what they cannot do, rather than focusing on their strengths and skills.
8.      Because they feel incapable of implementing the necessary courses of action, they develop passivity and their school performance deteriorates.
The Pessimistic Explanatory Style
Learned helpless students, perceive school failure as something that they will never overcome, and academic events, positive or negative, as something out of their control. This expectation of failure and perceived lack of control is central in the development of a learned helpless style. The way in which children perceive and interpret their experiences in the classroom helps us understand why some children develop an optimistic explanatory style, and believe that they are capable of achieving in school and others develop a pessimistic explanatory style, believing that they are not capable of succeeding in school (Seligman, Reivich, Jaycox, and Gilham, 1995).
Children with an optimistic explanatory style attribute school failure to momentary and specific circumstances; for example, “I just happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time.” Children with a pessimistic explanatory style explain negative events as something stable (the cause of the negative event will always be present), global (the cause of the negative event affects all areas of their lives), and internal (they conclude that they are responsible for the outcome or consequence of the negative event). A typical pessimistic explanatory style is, “I always fail no matter what I do.” On the contrary, when the outcome of the event is positive, a pessimistic child attributes the outcome to unstable (the cause of the event is transitory), specific (the cause of the event is situation specific), and external (other people or circumstances are responsible for the outcome) causes.
Learned Helpless Students Need Learning Strategies
Due to this perceived lack of control of the negative event, a learned helpless child is reluctant to seek assistance or help when he is having difficulty performing an academic task. These children are ineffective in using learning strategies, and they do not know how to engage in strategic task behavior to solve academic problems. For example, learned helpless children are unaware that if they create a plan, use a checklist, and/or make drawings, it will be easier for them to solve a multistep math word problem. With learned helpless children, success alone (e.g. solving accurately the multistep problem), is not going to ease the helpless perception or boost their self-confidence; remember that these children attribute their specific successes to luck or chance. According to Eccles, Wigfield, and Schiefele (1998), trying to persuade a learned helpless child that she can succeed, and asking her just to try hard, will be ineffective if we do not teach the child specific learning and compensatory strategies that she can apply to improve her performance when facing a difficult task. The authors state that the key in helping a learned helpless child overcome this dysfunctional explanatory pattern is to provide strategy retraining (teaching her strategies to use, and teaching explicitly when she can use those strategies), so that we give the child specific ways to remedy achievement problems; coupled with attribution retraining, or creating and maintaining a success expectation. When we teach a learned helpless child to use learning strategies, we are giving her the tools she needs to develop and maintain the perception that she has the resources to reverse failure. Ames (1990) recommends that, in combination with the learning strategies, we help the learned helpless child develop individualized short-term goals, e.g., “I will make drawings to accurately solve a two-steps math word problem.” When the child knows and implements learning strategies, she will be able to experience progress toward her individualized goals.
Learned Helpless Students Need to Believe that Effort Increases Skills
To accomplish this, we need to help learned helpless children recognize and take credit for the skills and abilities that they already have. In addition, we need to develop in children the belief that ability is incremental, not fixed; that is, effort increases ability and skills. Tollefson (2000) recommends that we help children see success as improvement; that is, we are successful when we acquire or refine knowledge and skills we did not have before. We need to avoid communicating children that, to succeed in school, they need to perform at a particular level, or they need to perform at the same level than other students. When we help children see success as improvement, states Tollefson, we are encouraging them to expend effort to remediate their academic difficulties. In addition, we are training them to focus on strategies and the process of learning, rather than outcomes and achievement.
Concluding Comments
To minimize the negative impact of learned helplessness in children, we need to train them to focus on strategies and processes to reach their academic goals, reinforcing the belief that, through effort, they are in control of their own behavior, and that they are in charge of developing their own academic skills. For example, to help a child focus on the learning process, after failure, we can tell the child, “Maybe you can think of another way of doing this.” This way, our feedback stays focused on the child’s effort and the learning strategies he or she is using -within both the child’s control and modifiable. When children themselves learn to focus on effort and strategies, they can start feeling responsible for positive outcomes, and responsible for their own successes in school and in life.
Ames, C. A. (1990). Motivation: What teachers need to know. Teachers College Record. Vol. 91, No. 3, pp. 409-421.
Eccles, S., Wigfield, A., and Schiefele, U. (1998). Motivation to succeed. In Eisenberg, N. (Ed.) Handbook of Child Psychology. Vol. 3 (5th ed., pp. 1017-1095). New York: Wiley.
Seligman, M. E., Reivich, K., Jaycox, L., & Gillham, J. (1995). The optimistic child. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

History of Martin Luther King Day

On November 2, 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed a bill making Martin Luther King Day a federal holiday as of January 20, 1986. As a result of this bill, Americans commemorate Martin Luther King, Jr.'s birthday on the third Monday in January. Few Americans are aware of the history of Martin Luther King Day and the long battle to convince Congress to establish this holiday in recognition of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

John Conyers and MLK Day

Congressman John Conyers, an African-American Democrat from Michigan, spearheaded the movement to establish a MLK day. Representative Conyers worked in the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s and was elected to Congress in 1964, where he championed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Four days after King's assassination in 1968, Conyers introduced a bill that would make January 15 a federal holiday in King's honor. But Congress was unmoved by Conyers' entreaties, and though he kept reviving the bill, it kept failing in Congress.

In 1970, Conyers convinced New York's governor and New York City's mayor to commemorate King's birthday, a move that the city of St. Louis emulated in 1971. Other localities followed, but it was not until the 1980s that Congress acted on Conyers' bill. By this time, the congressman had enlisted the help of popular singer Stevie Wonder, who released the song "Happy Birthday" for King in 1981, and Conyers had organized marches in support of the holiday-in 1982 and 1983, respectively.

Congressional Battles over MLK Day

Conyers was finally successful when he reintroduced the bill in 1983. But even in 1983 support was not unanimous. In the House of Representatives, William Dannemeyer, a Republican from California, led the opposition to the bill, arguing that it was too expensive to create a federal holiday and estimating that it would cost the federal government $225 million annually in lost productivity. Reagan's administration concurred with Dannemeyer's arguments, but the House passed the bill with a vote of 338 for and 90 against.

When the bill reached the Senate, the arguments opposing the bill were less grounded in economics and more reliant on outright racism. Senator Jesse Helms, a Democrat from North Carolina, held a filibuster against the bill and demanded the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) make public its files on King, asserting that King was a Communist who did not deserve the honor of a holiday. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) had investigated King throughout the late 1950s and 1960s at the behest of its chief, J. Edgar Hoover, and had even tried intimidation tactics against King, sending the civil rights leader a note in 1965 that suggested he kill himself to avoid embarrassing personal revelations hitting the media.

King, of course, was not a Communist and had broken no federal laws, but by challenging the status quo, King and the Civil Rights Movement discomfited the Washington establishment. Charges of Communism were a popular way to discredit people who dared speak truth to power during the 50s and 60s, and King's opponents made liberal use of that tactic.

When Helms tried to revive that tactic, Reagan defended him. A reporter asked Reagan about the charge of Communist against King, and Reagan said that Americans would find out in around 35 years, referring to the length of time before any material the FBI gathers on a subject could be released. Reagan later apologized, and a federal judge blocked the release of King's FBI files.

Conservatives in the Senate tried to change the name of the bill to "National Civil Rights Day" as well, but they failed to do so. The bill passed the Senate with a vote of 78 for and 22 against. Reagan capitulated, signing the bill into law.

The First MLK Day

King's wife, Coretta Scott King, chaired the commission responsible for creating the first celebration of King's birthday in 1986. Though she was disappointed at not receiving more support from Reagan's administration, the result was over a week of commemorations beginning on January 11, 1986, and lasting until the holiday itself on January 20. Events were held in cities like Atlanta and Washington, D.C., and included a tribute at the Georgia State Capitol and the dedication of a bust of Dr. King at the U.S. Capitol.

Some Southern states protested the new holiday by including Confederate commemorations on the same day, but by the 1990s the holiday had become established everywhere in the United States.

Reagan's proclamation of the holiday on January 18, 1986, explained the reason for the holiday: "This year marks the first observance of the birthday of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. as a national holiday. It is a time for rejoicing and reflecting. We rejoice because, in his short life, Dr. King, by his preaching, his example, and his leadership, helped to move us closer to the ideals on which America was founded. . . . He challenged us to make real the promise of America as a land of freedom, equality, opportunity, and brotherhood."

It required a long 15-year fight, but Conyers and his supporters successfully won King national recognition for his service to country and humanity.


Campbell, Bebe Moore. "A National Holiday for a King." Black Enterprise. January 1984: 21.

Garrow, David J. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. New York: Vintage Books, 1988.

Nazel, Joseph. Martin Luther King, Jr.. Los Angeles: Holloway House Publishing, 1991.

Reagan, Ronald. "Proclamation 5431 -- Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, 1986." 18 January 1986. Available online: http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/speeches/1986/11886a.htm.

Smitherman, Geneva. Word From the Mother: Language and African Americans. New York: Taylor & Francis, 2006.

Sunday, March 13, 2011

Alternative Education For Disadvantage youth in Indonesia
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Framework for action to meet basic learning needs